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Chemistry and Technology of Materials

Chemistry and Technology of Materials

Doctoral programme, Faculty of Chemical Technology
CHYBI CHARAKTERISTIKA PROGRAMU

Doctoral study of Chemistry and Technology of Materials is a natural consequence of the long-time material research at UCT Prague. The study is based on the cutting-edge physical, chemical and engineering approaches to materials and material technology. Students develop their knowledge about materials; they find and comprehend deeper relationships among preparation and/or production of materials, structure and composition, and their properties. Inevitable part of the study are courses focused to deeper understanding of nature of materials, analytical methods, material characterization, and material technologies.

Careers

Graduates become not only leading experts in the field of material science and technology, but thanks to their experience in international teamwork they are predetermined to start their career in academic area, international research and technology corporations, innovative companies, and state government.

Programme Details

Language of instruction English
Standard length of study 4 years
Form of study Full time
Guarantor of study programme prof. Dr. Ing. Dalibor Vojtěch
Programme Code AD102
Place of study Prague
Capacity 15 students
Number of available PhD theses 14

List of available PhD theses

Analysis of batch-to-glass conversion process

Department: Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology
Also available in programme: Chemie a technologie materiálů
Theses supervisor: Ing. Richard Pokorný, Ph.D.

Annotation

The goal of this project targets the analysis of one of the critical batch-to-glass conversion processes – the evolution and collapse of the primary foam at the batch-melt interface. This porous foam layer, which behaves as a form of insulation layer, results from the products of various gas evolving reactions that are being trapped in the primary melt. This project will focus on understanding the foam morphology, the reactions that lead to primary foaming.

Development of atmospheric corrosion monitoring techniques

Department: Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology
Also available in programme: Chemie a technologie materiálů
Theses supervisor: doc. Ing. Milan Kouřil, Ph.D.

Annotation

Majority of metallic objects, like metallic structures, vehicles, construction elements, cultural heritage, etc., is exposed in atmosphere. It deals with extreme costs and safety risks originated in corrosion. Corrosion protection is applied to avoid or minimize the impacts. There are many corrosion monitoring techniques available which might be applied for verification of corrosion countermeasures efficiency. However, the techniques must be accommodated to specific conditions of the particular fields. The project is focused on development of new device for atmospheric corrosion monitoring. The principle of the technique based on the electrical resistance method will be inovated. New corrosion sensors, electronics, software and data transfer and treatment will developed as well.

Elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of ceramics and composites

Department: Department of Glass and Ceramics, Faculty of Chemical Technology

Annotation

Elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric properties are of fundamental importance for many types of functional ceramics and composites. Figures of merit for these materials, e.g. ceramics for hydrophone applications, are usually determined by a complex interplay of these three types of properties. This PhD topic focuses on the study of the dependence of the effective elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric properties on the microstructure, mainly porosity, pore shape and grain size (in the case of composites also volume fraction). The student is required to have a background in materials science (not necessarily specialized on ceramics) and an interest in challenging theory (full tensor formalism for second-, third- and fourth-order tensors), computer modeling and experimental work with real-world materials.

Hydratation and adsorption properties of waste aluminosilicates in water management

Department: Department of Solid State Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology

Annotation

Aluminosilicates, together with e.g. powdered building waste, biochar, lignin are able to adsorb and keep a large amount of water compare to soils and sediments. The mixing of these materials with selected soils in controlled dosages can support water retention in soils, which is significant due to more and more often "dry periods" and generally lower precipitation. A controlled dosage of the material with high water retention to soil ecosystems can improve markedly a water regime and hydrological cycle.

Influence of Corrosion Products on Hydrogen Absorption to High Strength Steel

Department: Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology
Also available in programme: Chemie a technologie materiálů
Theses supervisor: Ing. Tomáš Prošek, Ph.D.

Annotation

This project originates from industrial projects on hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of high strength steels, which are especially prone to hydrogen(H)-induced degradation. Since the development of these advanced steel grades with a huge potential of material and energy savings in many fields of human activity, the number of industry-funded studies on HE has been rising significantly. However, their practical focus does not allow for studying underlying mechanisms, although they are crucial for future development of products with improved application properties. This work aims at fundamental understanding of atmospheric corrosion as source for H insertion into iron, the principal element of all steel grades, as well as into selected steel grades. The role of corrosion products (CPs) in the H insertion during atmospheric corrosion will be clarified: How do composition and structure of CPs affect corrosion processes in view of H adsorption and absorption by e.g. reactions that involve a change of pH or a ratio between H reduction and other depolarization reactions? Which atmospheric conditions trigger these reactions? What is the mechanism of atomic H formation and entry?

Large deformations of ceramic powder compacts and fracture of porous and cellular ceramics

Department: Department of Glass and Ceramics, Faculty of Chemical Technology
Also available in programme: Chemie a technologie materiálů

Annotation

Large deformations play a significant role in ceramic technology, because all pressing operations rely on the quasi-plastic behavior of powder systems during consolidation. On the other hand, also porous and cellular ceramics, including those produced via additive manufacturing, e.g. 3D printing, exhibit quasi-plastic behavior during compression. This PhD topic combines theory-based analytical modeling and computer-based numerical modeling of large deformations with real-world experiments performed on ceramic materials via different mechanical tests, mainly axial and diametral compression. The student is required to have a solid background knowledge in ceramic science and technology as well as the ability to combine computer modeling with experimental work on real materials from both fine and coarse ceramics.

Mechanism of atmospheric low-temperature stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel

Department: Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology
Theses supervisor: Ing. Tomáš Prošek, Ph.D.

Annotation

Stainless steels provide excellent service when selected and applied properly. Sufficient knowledge base is generally available for material selection for immersion conditions. This is not true for applications of stainless steels under atmospheric weathering conditions. Several cases of ceiling collapse and other component failures have shown that austenitic stainless steels are prone to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under specific atmospheric conditions characterized by the spontaneous formation of concentrated chloride solutions under highly soluble chloride deposits even at room or only slightly elevated temperatures. This was observed in indoor swimming pools, for outdoor climbing anchors and under evaporative conditions in oil and gas production, storage, and processing. In collaboration with UCT Prague, the Safety Commission of Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme (UIAA) introduced a new standard, which classifies climbing anchors into classes according to their resistance to SCC and/or corrosion. In the next step, particular environments will be classified. However, this requires deeper understanding into the degradation mechanism of stainless steels under relevant conditions is necessary. Factors influencing the SCC initiation and propagation such as the composition and concentration of deposits, tensile stress, role of crevices and aggressive ion accumulation, rock chemistry, periodic washing, stainless steel composition and microstructure and others will be systematically studied. In particular, in situ experiments will be carried out using X-ray micro tomography (μ-CT), which will allow for real time monitoring of crack initiation and propagation. In addition, outdoor exposures of numerous stainless steel grades and alternative materials organised around the world by UIAA will be followed and supported by failure analyses and specific measurements and tests.

Melting processes in vitrification technologies

Department: Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology
Also available in programme: Chemie a technologie materiálů

Annotation

The analysis of the processes during the vitrification process is performed using a mathematical model. Input data of the model will be obtained by a set of experimental methods including high temperature monitoring of melting processes, analysis of released gases, thermal analysis and determination of oxidative reduction equilibrium in melts.

Silicate glass surface

Department: Department of Glass and Ceramics, Faculty of Chemical Technology
Also available in programme: Chemie a technologie materiálů

Annotation

Glass surface is not fully explored, but the surface features are closely related to its mechanical and chemical properties. The work will focus to glass surface preparation, its characterization and well-defined modification. The relation of the surface with some properties will be further studied.

Special glasses

Department: Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology
Also available in programme: Chemie a technologie materiálů
Theses supervisor: Ing. Petr Kostka, Ph.D.

Annotation

The work will focus on the preparation and study of new glasses containing heavy metal compounds, especially heavy metal oxides. Heavy metal oxide glasses in which the glass network is formed by oxides such as e.g. TeO2, GeO2 or Sb2O3 instead of SiO2 are studied for their characteristic properties. In comparison to conventional glasses they particularly excel with their wide transparency interval reaching to much longer wavelengths than in silicate glasses, higher refractive index, and non-linear optical properties. They are also interesting because of the high quantum yield of radiative transitions of rare earth ions embedded in their glass networks, which have low phonon energies, and because of their ability to adopt high concentrations of rare earths ions. The characterization of the prepared materials will include determination of their basic physicochemical properties such as density, molar volume, thermal stability, chemical resistance, hardness, optical transparency, refractive index etc. The correlation between the structural units of the glass network and resulting properties will be investigated and the influence of technological conditions during glass preparation on glass properties will be studied. The Laboratory cooperates with foreign research institutions.

Stability of soil ternary complexes with toxic oxyanion (As/Sb/Se). Effect of iron and organic carbon.

Department: Department of Solid State Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology
Also available in programme: Chemie a technologie materiálů

Annotation

In soil profiles several toxic elements (arsenic, antimony, selenium) occur as oxyanions primarily bound to HFO phases, forming stable surface complexes. This process runs as the balanced adsorption of oxyanions from a soil solution to active adsorption sites of soil particles, in the presence of another anions and dissolved organic matter. During this process the binary and/or ternary soil complexes of HFO, organic matter and oxyanion have been formed. The adsorption and complexation proceed in a colloid environment, which is susceptible to the ionic strength of soil solution (stabilization or aggregation of particles). According to recent results the stability of formed ternary complexes is critical for the long-term stability of binding oxyanions. The aim of this work will be to qualify the formation of organic matter – ferric oxide – anionic particle ternary komplexes, to describe their structure and binding properties, and to estimate the environmental impact to the stability of complex components, particularly the toxic oxyanionic forms.

Structure of glass and its interfaces

Department: Department of Glass and Ceramics, Faculty of Chemical Technology
Also available in programme: Chemie a technologie materiálů

Annotation

Glass structure is described by means of structural quantifiers (radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, Q-motifs, rings, etc.) on various geometrical and topological levels. Structure can be theoretically mimicked by Molecular dynamics on the atomic level. The work aims to the theoretical description of glass structure and its relation to the glass transition. Except for the theoretical description, simulations of the chosen amorphous systems and their interfaces will be utilised.

Supported catalysts with active layer of mixed transition metal oxides

Department: Department of Solid State Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology
Also available in programme: Chemie a technologie materiálů

Annotation

The work is focused on preparation of catalytically active mixed oxides of transition metals deposited on preformed metal and ceramic supports. Modification of supports surface, coating with oxide interlayers for active components anchoring, and subsequent deposition of the catalytically active binary and ternary Ni, Cu, Co, and Mn mixed oxides will be studied to achieve good adhesion of the deposited oxides to the supports. The aim of the work is to obtain a complex information about the role of supports surface pretreatment, procedure of precursors deposition, and following thermal treatment on the composition, physical chemical properties, and catalytic activity of the deposited mixed oxide catalysts.

Suspension rheology – from theoretical foundations to practical applications

Department: Department of Glass and Ceramics, Faculty of Chemical Technology
Also available in programme: Chemie a technologie materiálů

Annotation

The rheology of suspensions is a topic of widespread interest that is important in ceramic technology and many other fields. This PhD topic involves the theoretical treatment of basic problems in suspension rheology, mainly the dependence of the effective viscosity on particle shape, size and size distribution, as well as practical work with purely viscous non-Newtonian fluids as well as viscoelastic systems, mainly using rotational viscometry and oscillatory rheometry. The student is required to have a general chemical engineering background, not necessarily based on (and by no means limited to) ceramic technology.


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