čas: 23.4.2021 01:29:00
Obnovit | RAW
Department of Analytical Chemistry
List of available PhD theses
A Systematic State of the Art Method Development Strategy for the Determination of Pharmaceutical Genotoxic Impurities
Alteration of materials on the clay cement interface
Chemical composition of human scents and its correlation with the blood groups of individuals.
Chirooptical spectroscopy in microwave region: Development and performance of the experiment
Chiroptical studies of natural compounds and their derivatives
Methods of chiroptical (circular dichroism and Raman optical activity) and vibrational (infrared absorption and Raman scattering) spectroscopy will be applied for conformational analysis and investigation of physicochemical properties of natural compounds, e.g. alkaloids, saccharides, steroids, growth hormone fragments etc., and their derivatives. For instance, new substances with a promising potential for medical and biochemical applications will be synthesized in cooperation with the Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Experimental spectra will be interpreted by means of quantum chemical calculations and a detailed description of 3D structures and corresponding properties of the studied compounds will be performed.
Development of Lanthanide Luminescent Complexes for Raman Spectroscopy and Imaging
Lanthanide luminescent complexes seem to be very suitable for imaging of living cells by the Raman microscopy. For example, they are more stable and spectra are more specific than for organic dyes. We will further improve their functionality so they will bind to specific biomolecules or cellular structures. Spectroscopic properties, such as fluorescent quantum yield, will be optimized as well. The work will include organic synthesis, characterization of the spectroscopic response, e.g., upon interaction with proteins and nucleic acids, and polarization measurements with left- and right-circularly polarized light.
Development of analytical methods for forensic analysis of nuclear materials
Development of computer interpretation of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra for molecular structure elucidation.
Determination of molecular structure by means of computer programs, especially from NMR spectra, nowadays surpasses man not only in speed but also in accuracy. However, the interpretation of experimental spectra remains an unresolved part of molecular structure determination. The aim of this work is to process 1D and 2D NMR spectra using own algorithms that enable automated determination of molecular structure of studied compounds.
Development of digital human scent signatures database
Development of electrochemical methods for forensic analysis of psychoactive compounds
Development of high pressure Raman and Raman optical activity spetroscopy
Vibrational spectra at high pressures, such as of biologically relevant molecules, provides insight into molecular structure and interactions. We will measure Raman spectra of model systems in the diamond pressure cell and interpret the spectra based on molecular dynamics simulations. We will also try to further develop the technique so that new information can be obtained using differential scattering of left and right circularly polarized light (Raman optical activity).
Development of methodology for processing and evaluation of signals from biospectroscopic analyses for clinical use
Spectroscopic methods have been gradually more often utilized in analyses of clinical samples, resulting in large volumes of multidimensional data. The dissertation will be focused on the automation of individual steps from the pre-analytical phase to the statistical evaluation of the acquired data with the aim to achieve the highest possible repeatability and reproducibility. The student will actively participate in the analyses of biological samples (blood plasma, tissues) using vibrational and chiroptical spectroscopy, specifically infrared absorption, Raman spectroscopy, electronic circular dichroism and Raman optical activity. The thesis will also address the need of effective processing of large amounts of extensive data sets. For this, algorithms will be developed in order to facilitate the processing of the acquired spectra and subsequent multivariate statistical analysis thereof. The dissertation will be realized within cooperation with clinical workplaces of the General University Hospital in Prague, and Military University Hospital.
Development of portable apparatus for a contactless collection of genetic and scent samples
High resolution spectroscopy in the THz and MW regions
High resolution spectroscopy in the THz region
Hygroscopicity of aerosol particles
Hygroscopicity of aerosol particles is their ability to bind air humidity. This changes their shape, size and phase behavior. Hygroscopicity affects the ability of particles to become cloud condensation nuclei, their optical properties, global climate change, and human health. The aim of the project is to study hygroscopicity of aerosol particles in the laboratory and in the atmosphere. In the laboratory, aerosol particles composed of substances commonly found in atmospheric aerosols will be generated and their hygroscopicity studied using HTDMA spectrometer. At the National Atmospheric Observatory Kosetice, atmospheric aerosol will be sampled using spectrometers HTDMA, SMPS, APS and AMS. Moreover, samples on filters and impactors will be analyzed in the laboratory. Experimental results will be compared with model predictions.
Interaction of selected tracers with cementitious materials
Interpretation of Raman optical activity of nucleic acids
Spectroscopy of vibrational Raman optical activity is a new and dynamically evolving analytical method providing important information, such as about biopolymer and enzyme structure. The applications are very dependent on spectral interpretations based on the molecular dynamics and quantum chemical computational methods. For nucleic acids, although experimentally very interesting systems can be approached, including viruses, the relation between the spectrum and the structure is not completely known. A big problem are computer demands required by these complex and big molecules. We will therefore focus on development of experimental and computational methodology for model system, suitable to describe specific nucleic acid properties, such as flexibility and polarity. Modern computational methods will be both used and developed, such as combination of classical and quantum mechanics or testing models of solvent and environment during molecular interactions.
Laser and heat-induced redox processes for deposition of novel structures for solar-light photocatalysis
There is great ongoing interest in semiconductors including TiO2-based materials due to their potential in solar energy-to-electric conversion (solar cells) and solar energy-to-chemical energy conversion (water splitting and photo-catalyzed degradation of pollutants in atmosphere and water). Much recent attention to improve these materials for efficient solar-light catalysis is documented in the literature. In this project we propose a novel approach to these materials based on redox paths between metal oxides, which are induced by laser excitation and conventional heat treatment. Highly non-equilibrium deposition conditions due to laser excitation are expected to affect the electronic structure and reactivity of potential reactants to form products not observed under ambient conditions.
Preparation and electrochemical studies of polymer layers for bioanalytical applications
Preparation of nanostructured materials for C2-C3 hydrocarbon generation from CO2 in electrochemistry
Reduction of waste gaseous products in industry anticipates a capture or other form of CO2 decrease. Simultaneously, a burst production of electrical energy from wind farms and/or photovoltaics parks enables an (electrochemical) generation of simple hydrocarbons from a waste CO2. Therefore, it is advisable to search for novel electrode materials for effective electrochemical reactions. The materials will be based on selected metal silicides and germanides prepared in nanostructured form. The doctoral student will synthetize the materials using laser chemistry and CVD and study by means of analytical techniques available in laboratory.
Preparation of solid surfaces with a molecular receptor covalently anchored, and studies of their usability in sensors construction.
The aim of this work is to modify the chemical structure of molecular receptors functional in solution so that they can be covalently attached to a solid surface or prepare a polymer. Study the functionality and usability of such materials for sensor construction.
Spectroscopic analysis of biologically active compounds in the solid state
Drugs, food components or other biologically active substances often need to be analyzed in the solid state. We will concentrate on the detection of model systems using infrared and Raman spectroscopic methods. These methods are relatively easy to use, but may have sensitivity limits, require special sample preparations and the interpretation of the spectra can be difficult. In the project, we will try to complete unpolarized measurements by vibrational optical activity and develop computational and simulation tools for prediction and interpretation of the spectra.
Structure of carbohydrates investigated by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling
Carbohydrates are the most abundant biomolecules with enormous structural diversity. They are present in the Nature in the form of mono-, di-, oligo- or polysaccharides but also as a part of glycoconjugates such as glycoproteins, peptidoglycans or glycolipids. Consequently, this structural variety makes carbohydrates the least exploited among biomolecules. In addition to the structural diversity, originating from multi-linkage and branching of monosaccharides, carbohydrates are usually flexible molecules that can exist in various conformations. All this makes structural studies of carbohydrates difficult and challenging.
NMR spectroscopy is, among other experimental techniques, the most exploited method in determination of carbohydrate structure. The advantage of NMR is the possibility to study molecules of interest in both solution and solid state and at the same time correlate multiple parameters (chemical shift, coupling constants, NOE, relaxation times) with the structure. On the other hand, NMR spectra of carbohydrates are complex due to significant signal overlap and averaging of NMR parameters in solution experiments. Many NMR parameters respond sensitively to changes in structure, which is however not directly deducible from NMR spectra. Therefore, a combination of experimental NMR with molecular modeling techniques is frequently used in carbohydrate structure determination.
The aim of the PhD project is studying of carbohydrate structures by NMR spectroscopy and explore various NMR techniques in combination with molecular modelling that can be used in order to fulfil this task. Particular emphasis will be given to the sensitivity of NMR parameters to conformational changes and to the influence of the environment on carbohydrate structure. The studied compounds will be synthesized in a collaborating laboratory of Dr. Kamil Parkan at UCT Prague.
Study of compounds abused for doping by LC-MS
Study of conformation and solvation envelops of bioactive compounds in solution via NMR
The work deals with conformations and solvation envelopes of biologically important substances (drugs) using NMR. The aim is to develop experimental methods to obtain detailed information about the conformers of substances in solution, and their interaction with solvent molecules or solutes. The aim is to correlate the information obtained with the structure of substances in the crystals, physicochemical properties and biological activity.
Study of pharmacokinetics and metabolism of psychoactive compounds by LC-MS
Study of potential pharmaceuticals based on lipopeptides by LC-MS
Study on transformations of organic aerosols
Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) as important components of atmospheric aerosols influence Earth’s climate, human health and life expectancy. They are produced by atmospheric photooxidations of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) via gas-to-particle conversion. Terpenes and isoprenes belong to the most abundant chemical species detected in BVOC emissions. They can be oxidized to form semi- and low-volatile carbonyls, acids, and other products, transitioning between gas and particulate phase. To correctly describe these transformations by mathematical models, knowledge of thermodynamic and transport properties of these compounds is needed. The doctoral student will study these phenomena using advanced aerosol instrumentation including on-line chemical and physical characterization of particles by mass spectrometry.
Supramolecular assemblies and gels from helicene-polypeptide conjugates: synthesis and chiroptical properties
This work will be focused on the preparation and characterization of new supramolecular systems based on helicene-polypeptide conjugates. The polypeptide moiety will be systematically modified to produce highly ordered supramolecular aggregates stabilized by hydrogen and other interactions. Common methods of structural analysis including highly sensitive methods of chiroptical spectroscopy (electronic circular dichroism ECD, vibrational circular dichroism VCD and Raman optical activity ROA) will be used for the characterization.